Learning to listen well
1 | USING EXPLORATORY QUESTIONS
Exploratory questions are the perfect starting point in a conversation. These questions usually beginning with “how” and “what. ” They are unbiased: free of assumptions. Nor do they suggest a binary - yes or no - response. Because they're open-ended, these questions can lead us down many possible and unexpected paths. They may give us more or different information than we expected and often help see our clients from new perspectives. These types of questions are particularly effective when you need to grease the wheels in a group discussion. Try the following exploratory questions to open things up:
- What does “ideal” look like?
- How would you approach . . . ?
- What would you do if . . . ?
- What’s the biggest risk to . . . ?
- How do you feel about that?
2 | USING ENCOURAGING PHRASES
Sometimes our clients need an extra nudge to open up. Encouraging phrases can give people permission to go to places they wouldn't have otherwise. Small nudges help us to peel back the layers and deepen a conversation, without pushing anyone too far. Encouraging phrases you may already use include:
- Say more about that.
- Tell me what this means to you.
- Walk me through . . .
- Tell me more.
- What else?
Some phrases I use are even more subtle. They invite a client to share an idea or feeling based on a hunch I may have. A few samples of these phrases include:
- It sounds like that was difficult for you. [pause]
- It seems like that was very exciting for you. [pause]
- You feel that way because . . . [pause]
3 | USING EITHER-OR REFLECTION QUESTIONS
Sometimes our clients need space for thinking, feeling and reflecting. These questions prompting clients to think through topic that arises, helping them decide which course of action is better, what assumptions they're basing their decisions on, or which limiting beliefs are getting in the way of a preferred futures. Reflection questions often help clients recognize that. that there is more that one option for moving forward. Either-or questions can be immensely powerful. Suggest only one either‑or pairing at a time to avoid indecision paralysis; A few either-or questions I frequently use when coaching include:
- Are you looking for something stimulating or low-key?
- Is this issue a must-have or a nice‑to‑have one for you?
- Would you say you feel more frustrated or disappointed?
- Is it more about wanting a new role or wanting to be recognized?
- Is this something you wish to address immediately or sometime in the not too distant future?
I invite you try on one or more of these approaches during a future coaching session. Note which ones work for you and when they serve you best in a conversation. May these questions and phrases help you get to the bottom of what your clients are feeling, and build better, more collaborative working relationships as a result. Let me know which types of questions for phrases you'd like to experiment with this week.
Although we've talked about this preciously, I wonder about responding when during the explanatory moment someone responds with something that is distressing, concerning, or worse in their response. E.g., someone suggesting an action or behavior that is physically or severely immoral (physically contemplating hurting someone or perhaps exploiting a personal secret, etc. on social media).
Although I truly do hope and pray for the best in a client's ability to resolve, I wonder about exploratory questions or phrases to redirect situations like my example. Or should we at that time put on a pastoral or consultant hat.
I've been in the mentoring and pastoral care case for so long, and in the given environments I serve, I've been in situations where the only way to divert is to intentionally do so and say "no," "you can't do that," "that's not legal," or "that choice will cause repercussions you can never recover from." I feel a little like I'm struggling in moments to apply the coaching model in light of cultural and communal "in situ" moments.
I am a big fan of the encouraging phrases that essentially ask a client to elaborate. I have gotten caught with things like – it sounds like that was difficult or exciting – as the client has corrected my comment. While I know it’s not a bad thing for a client to correct my assessment, it makes me wonder if there have been other situations where a client has not felt comfortable correcting my assessment which makes me want to work at steering clear of these types of responses.
I’m not sure how I feel about the either-or reflection questions. On their own, they seem very similar to yes/no, closed questions. I could see myself possibly using them if they were paired with a second question of why or how do you feel when you make that choice.
And while I understand what Saeed is saying with regards to feeling the need to intervene, I wonder if the struggle is one of clarifying our role as a coach and letting go of responsibility for other people’s actions. I’m not saying it’s easy to let go of that struggle, but I can see the importance of embracing the idea that people need to come to an understanding of their actions on their own terms – telling them what they should/n’t do is not necessarily going to be effective in the long run.